Sunday, March 8, 2020

Learn How to Write a Professional News Story

Learn How to Write a Professional News Story Many students take journalism courses because they like to write, and many journalism courses focus on the craft of writing. But the great thing about news writing is that it follows a basic format. Learn that format, and youll be able to write news stories, whether youre a naturally talented writer or not. Writing Your Lede The most important part of any news story is the lede, which is the very first sentence of a news story. In it, the writer summarizes the most newsworthy points of the story in broad brushstrokes. If a lede is well-written, it will give the reader a basic idea of what the story is about, even if they skip over the rest of the story. Example: Two people died in a rowhouse fire in Northeast Philadelphia last night. See what I mean? From this ​lede, you get the basics: two people killed, rowhouse fire, and northeast Philadelphia. Now, theres obviously a lot more to this story. What caused the fire? Who was killed? What was the address of the rowhouse? And so on. Those details will be in the rest of the story. But the lede gives us the story in a nutshell. Beginners often have trouble figuring out what to put into a lede and what to leave out. Again, think in broad brushstrokes: Give the major points of the story, but leave the smaller details for later. The Five Ws and the H One way to figure out what goes into a lede is to use the five Ws and the H: who, what, where, when, why, and how. Who is the story about? What is it about? Where did it occur? And so on. Answer those questions in your lede, and youre covering all the bases. Sometimes, one of those answers will be more interesting than the rest. Lets say youre writing a story about a celebrity who dies in a car crash. Obviously, what makes the story interesting is the fact that a celebrity is involved. A car crash in and of itself is common. Unfortunately, thousands of people die in car crashes every year. So in this example, youll want to emphasize that who aspect of the story in your lede. But what about the rest of the story, the part that comes after the lede? News stories are written in the inverted pyramid format. Sounds weird, but all this means is that the most important information goes at the top, or the beginning of the story, and the least important stuff goes at the bottom. We do this for several reasons. First, readers have a limited amount of time and short attention spans, so it makes sense to put the most important news at the start of the story. Second, this format allows editors to shorten stories quickly on deadline if needed. Its much easier to trim a news story if you know the least important stuff is at the end. Basic News Format The other thing to remember? Keep your writing tight, and your stories relatively short. Say what you need to say in as few words as possible. One way to do this is to follow the S-V-O format, which stands for Subject-Verb-Object. To understand this concept, look at these two examples: She read the book. The book was read by her. Whats the difference between these two sentences? The first one is written in the S-V-O format: She (subject) read (verb) the book (object). As a result, the sentence is short and to the point (four words). And since the connection between the subject and the action shes taking is clear, the sentence has some life to it. You can picture a woman reading a book when you read the sentence. The second sentence, on the other hand, doesnt follow S-V-O. As a result, the connection between the subject and what shes doing has been severed. What youre left with is a sentence thats watery and unfocused. The second sentence is also two words longer than the first. Two words may not seem like a lot, but imagine cutting two words from every sentence in a 10-inch news article. Soon, it starts to add up. You can convey much more information using far fewer words with the S-V-O format.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Physics MRI Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Physics MRI - Essay Example The Larmor (or resonant) frequency ω0 is the frequency at which the nuclide precesses about the magnetic field. The resonant frequency is equal to the magnetogyric ratio ÃŽ ³ (specific to the nuclide) times the magnetic field B (Brandolini, 2004): the nuclide 13C at 75 MHz. From the equation above, the magnetogyric ratio ÃŽ ³ is constant so that ÃŽ ³ =ω0 /B = ω’0 /B’, where ω’0 is the resonant frequency when the magnetic field B’ = 1.5 T. Solving for ω’0 : ω’0 = (ω0 B’)/B what is the mean B and B This is explained in the sentence directly above: the single prime corresponds to the resonant frequency when the magnetic field is 1.5 T. You are asking what is meant by B’, but if you look at the sentence above, it was just defined: B’ = 1.5T. It is the magnetic field at 1.5T. B’’ is just a different value of the magnetic field (in this case 4 T) where we are trying to find the frequency w0’’ that corresponds to it. From this equation, if you know the frequency ω0 and the magnetic field B, then the ratio of these is the gyromagnetic ratio. We know the frequency at 6.9T from the reference cited above. Therefore, to find the frequency at a different magnetic field, we just use the equation w0/B = ÃŽ ³ = constant. So another set of corresponding values of w0 and B, call these new values w0’’ and B’’, will also have the same ratio: w0’’/B’’ =ÃŽ ³ constant = w0/B. Since we now have w0’’/B’’ = w0/B, we can multiply both sides by B’’ to get: w0’’ = w0 * B’’/B . Hopefully you can now see where that equation comes from. The reason I didn’t put the calculation down in this case, is because it is EXACTLY the same as the calculation before it, but with different values. You can just follow the equations that were used in the example above it, putting in the

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Market equilibrium Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Market equilibrium - Research Paper Example Production and consumption of goods and services are influenced by several factors. However, it is worth to note that there are critical aspects of the society that determines demand and supply. In the context of economics, the society is always entangled in a struggle to satisfy its diverse needs with limited resources. Exchange of goods and services constitutes market and is subject to natural or artificial forces (Dwivedi,2010). The goal of the society has remained achieving equilibrium in the market. In other words, market equilibrium is a state of balance between goods and services supplied and demanded. Under this condition prices and quantity are reconciled between the seller and the buyer. For instance, assuming the equilibrium price is Pe and equilibrium quantity is Qe;it mean that the seller and the buyer has consented the quantity and prices. A diagrammatical presentation of a market equilibrium can be shown below.Supply and demand curves.(Fig.1)The figure .1 above shows t he supply and demand curves with the convergent points indicating equilibrium. This Pe represents equilibrium price and Qe representing equilibrium quantity. It is worth to note that the highlighted prices and quantity stated are mutually accepted by the two parties to the agreement. In other words, there are times when the demand and supply of goods shows no tendency to change and this constitutes market equilibrium. The price changes are a function of equilibrium status of the market.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Dixons Takeover of Elkjøp

Dixons Takeover of Elkjà ¸p The agreed takeover of Elkjà ¸p by Dixons Contents (Jump to) Abstract Chapter 2 – Literature Review Chapter 3 Sources of Data Chapter 4 Research Design, and Statistical Analysis Chapter 5 Conclusion Bibliography Abstract The roles and responsibilities of the Board of Directors, Chief Operating Officer, or Managing Director, Chief Financial Officer and the remainder of upper management of a listed company, as stated by Jayne Mammatt, Senior Manager at Ernst and Young, â€Å"†¦ have become increasingly onerous in recent years† (Ernst Young, 2006). The key purpose of the Board of Directors is â€Å"†¦ to ensure the †¦Ã¢â‚¬  prosperity of a company by â€Å"†¦ directing the company’s affairs whilst meeting the appropriate interests of its shareholders †¦Ã¢â‚¬  (BREFI group, 2006). The role of the Board of Directors is to (BREFI group, 2006): Establish vision, mission and values, Set strategy and structure, Delegate to management, and Exercise accountability to shareholders and be responsible to relevant stakeholders. The preceding statement bears particular relevance concerning the subject of the acquisition of Elkjà ¸p by Dixons and whether said acquisition will result in a gain in shareholder wealth. The question posed as to the fact that there is evidence that domestic acquisitions do not lead to shareholder wealth gains is borne out in studies conducted by Doukas and Travlos (1988, pp. 1161-1175) and Markides and Ittner (1994, pp. 343-366). Thus, in the case of the acquisition of Elkjà ¸p by Dixons the question to be examined is, if there is any reason to suppose that a cross-border acquisition would be different in terms of leading to shareholder wealth gains? Dixons is one of the largest retailers of electronic products in the Europe, operating in over 12 countries (DSG International plc, 2006a). The company, Dixons Group plc, is presently known as DSG International (UK Business Park, 1999), however it shall be referred to as Dixons in this examination. The company operates in the following sectors under a number of brand names which the company has acquired or set up operations under its own brand (DSG International plc, 2006b): Electricals Currys Electro World Elkjà ¸p Kotsovolos Partmaster Direct UniEuro DSG Insurance Services Computing DSG Business Services Genesis PC City PC World PC World Business The TechGuys e-commerce Dixons.co.uk Pixmania.com The company earned  £7,072,000,000 during 1005 – 2006 and generated  £317,600,000 in profits before tax (DSG International plc, 2006). Elkjà ¸p ASA is the largest wholesale and retail seller of electronic equipment in the Nordic Region with outlets located in Norway, Sweden and Denmark (Business.com, 2006) generating approximately  £475 million in sales in 1999 (Dixons Group plc, 2000/02, p. 3). Dixons has been an acquisition minded company, utilizing this technique to expand into new markets as well as broaden its base of operations in the same mode as Wal-Mart which utilizes the buy in approach to enter markets as opposed to setting up new operations from scratch. The foregoing is evidenced by its acquisition of ASDA in the United Kingdom and planned acquisition of Taiwanese retail Trust-Mart in China (Barboza and Barbaro, 2006). In 1999 Dixons acquired the Norwegian electrical retailer Elkjà ¸p for  £444 million to establish a significant foothold in the markets o f Denmark, Norway and Sweden, as well as a platform for the launch of other branded stores in its portfolio (UK Business Park, 1999). The expansion represents a long standing policy of the company which has acquired (UK Business Park, 1999): 1996, DN Computer Services, a mail order computer company for  £9.7 million 1998, Byte, a computer retailing business acquired from Specialist Computer Holdings for  £7 million to add its 16 outlets to the chain of 50 PC World stores 1999, a chain of 39 electronic retail stores from Seeboard for  £20 million 1998, a stake in with Planet Online to aid in Internet computer sales 1999, an investment in U.S. based Telepost Holdings for  £6 million to expand its Internet based business services 1999, acquisition of Elkjà ¸p for  £444 million 2000, acquisition of Ei System Computer in Spain for  £16 million to add 12 stores to its business line 2000, a 15% stake in Greek electronics retailer P. Kotsovolos for  £44 million 2001, the acquisition of the Danish company SuperRadio, a chain of electronics superstores 2001, the acquisition of a 24% stake in the Italian electrical retailer UniEuro for  £64 million, 2002, the acquisition of Direct Telephone Services, a mobile phone provider for  £31 million 2002, the acquisition of the remaining shares of UniEuro’s 88 stores for an additional  £231 million 2004, the acquisition of WHSU, known as Micro Warehouse, to expand its PC World operations 2005, Dixons changed its name to DSG International The indicated deals point to the management strategy of expansion through acquisition as a long term business plan, of which Elkjà ¸p was another link in that process. This examination shall seek to examine the statement as to whether the instance of the cross border acquisition of Elkjà ¸p by Dixons has lead to a gain in shareholder wealth in light of the statement that there is a sufficient body of evidence in domestic acquisitions that such transactions do not, in most instances, lead to gains in this area. The foregoing question shall be examined through research conducted into the pre and post merger standings of Dixons, as well as other indicators of shareholder values as represented by stock prices, assets, and revenue growth. As stated by Broxterman and Murad (1999, p. 3) the objective and concern of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer and upper management staff is to â€Å"†¦ increase shareholder value†. They state that this is measurable through the following means (Broxterman and Murad (1999, p. 3): Return on Capital Invested, or EVA (Economic Value Added) This term has become a popular metric that measures the trend of an improvement or a decline in shareholder value, and in the instance of public companies this is reflected in the stock price. Accordingly, an increase in shareholder value moves stock prices upward, whereas a decline in this metric sends them downward. Groves (2006) states that in simple terms, a company increases shareholder value through either a reduction in â€Å"†¦ its cost base whilst maintaining revenue †¦Ã¢â‚¬  and or through increasing â€Å"†¦ its revenue whilst maintaining or reducing its cost base†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . Bierman (2006, pp. 1-2) makes the same argument, stating that â€Å"Business corporations attempt to make profits and increase the value of the stockholder’s position†. These theories apply to acquisition activity as well, as these transactions represent a facet of corporate strategy to expand their operations and to increase their profit Rappaport, 1997, pp. 14-29). Such can also result, increased profits, from economies of scale, which is the reduction of duplicate operations that thus lowers costs in administration, warehousing, manufacturing, delivery, supply chains and allied functions. Utilizing the foregoing as a guide, research into these aspects will provide definitive in formation to equate whether an acquisition has met these conditions as indicated above. Dixons’ management strategies have functioned in much the same manner as the fabled John F. Welch, Jr., the former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of General Electric during their storied years in that â€Å"Who knows what they’ll buy or sell next?† (Higgins, 2000, p. 10). This illustration has been utilized because between 1987 and 1988 General Electric’s â€Å"†¦ return on shareholders equity increased from 17.6 percent in 1986 to 18.5 percent in 1987 and to 19.4 percent in 1888 †¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Higgins, 2000, p. 9). Furthermore â€Å"†¦ the company’s balance sheet and cash flow remained strong during this period †¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Higgins, 2000, p. 9). Despite the foregoing the company’s share price did not reflect this performance as a result of the â€Å"†¦ perception of outsiders †¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Higgins, 2000, p. 9). The foresight of Welsh and General Electric was acknowledged nearly a decade later when Noel Tichy, a corporate analyst said â€Å"The two greatest corporate leaders of this century are Alfred Sloan of General Motors and Jack Welsh of GE† (Higgins, 2000, p. 10). The preceding represents the spirit of the examination of Dixons, in that their acquisition minded strategy is seemingly challenged in the same manner. Chapter 2 – Literature Review In researching the subject as to whether there is any reason to believe that the cross border acquisition, as represented by Dixons of Elkjà ¸p, should or does represent a difference between domestic acquisitions which by and large have proven not to lead to an increase in shareholder wealth, there is evidence to prove such is not necessarily the case. Jarrel and Poulsen (1889, pp. 12-19) support the analysis that domestic acquisitions do not generally lead to shareholder increases in their analysis as reported in â€Å"The Returns to Acquiring Firms in Tender Offers: Evidence from Three Decades.†, as does Loder and Martin (1990, pp. 17-33) in â€Å"Corporate Acquisitions by Listed Firms: The Experience of a Comprehensive Sample†. Doukas and Travlos (1988, pp. 1161-1175) in â€Å"The Effects of Corporate Multinationalism on Shareholders’ Wealth†, Markides and Ittner’s (1994, pp. 343-366) Shareholder Benefits from Corporate International Diversifica tion:† as well as Yeung and Morck (1992, pp. 41-56) in â€Å"Internationalization: An Event Study Test† point to evidence that companies in comparison achieved better result from international acquisitions. The preceding authors explain the improved results concerning gains as being a factor of market synergies. A review of the Annual Reports of Dixons and Elkjà ¸p for the periods between 1999 through 2005-2006 represented a key source of direct information concerning the earnings of the firms which in term could be correlated against the stock prices for said periods. As stated by Higgins (2000, p. 9) in his book â€Å"Best Practices in Global Investor Relations: The Creation of Shareholder Value†, the activity registered by stock prices might not accurately reflect the performance of the company, however, the preceding analogy referred to the inception of diversified merger and acquisition strategy in the 1980’s by Jack Welsh of General Electric, whose principle are understood now. Chapter 3 – Sources of Data In equating whether Dixons management strategy in the acquisition of Elkjà ¸p has added to shareholder value, the analysis of a number of sources shall be utilized to bring forth data to enable a determination to be reached. Past history as represented in the Annual Reports for both companies represents the most relevant data concerning revenues, profit and related data. Internet sources present the opportunity to examine stock prices from a present day and historical basis to correlate against the revenue result achieved in various years to reach a determination of the preceding in generating shareholder wealth. The utilization of books and journal articles represent sources that will aid in reviewing theory as well as foundational and theoretical information on shareholder wealth as well as the duties and responsibilities of the Board of Directors and upper management in this regard. Internet sources represent the means to seek information not only on theoretical aspects as mentioned previously, but information on company activities as reported in various newspapers and press releases. The combinations of these sources will permit a balanced view as to equating the examination of the question, thus all shall be utilized. Chapter 4 – Research Design, and Statistical Analysis The design of the research is to present the factual accounting and stock share price data as the conclusive means via which to reach a determination as to if the acquisition of Elkjà ¸p by Dixons has or has not resulted in gains to shareholder wealth. This approach has been taken as a result of studies and information as provided by Doukas and Travlos (1988, pp. 1161-1175) and Markides and Ittner (1994, pp. 343-366) on international acquisitions, as well as the internet source of BREFI (2006) that outlined the roll of the Board of Directors, along with Broxterman and Murad’s (1999, p. 3) insights into ‘return on capital invested, or EVA (Economic Value Added). The summary of financial activity with respect to Dixon’s acquisition of Elkjà ¸p is contained in the following Table: Table 1 – Dixons Acquisition of Elkjà ¸p Financial Summary 1998 through 2006 (in  £millions) (Dixons Annual Reports, 1999 through 2005/06) The foregoing statistical figures have been compiled in keeping with the stated aims and objectives of this examination as well as to present the actual results of operations. This Table effectively indicates that Dixons share prices have increased since its acquisition of Elkjà ¸p, as have revenues. Chapter 5 Conclusion Dixons acquisition of Elkjob represents one of a string of acquisitions performed by the company since 1999. Elkjà ¸p’s revenues during the period 2004/05 were  £1,003m (Dixons, 2004/05) with 2005/06 sales registering in excess of 1,500m (contentmanager.net, 2006). Considering that Dixsons paid  £444 for Elkjà ¸p in 1999, the earnings clearly indicate that Dixons has received more than its money’s worth in return. The stock price and revenues figures clearly prove that in this instance Elkjà ¸p’s as well as Dixons shareholders have benefited from this acquisition, as well as the other acquisitions and company actions since 1999. Given that Economic Value Added, as stated by Broxterman and Murad (1999, p. 3) is the key determinant of shareholder vale, Dixons has demonstrated that their concern for shareholder value has been met. The dramatic gains made by the company are a result of its overall approach to management of the firm’s resources, as well as continued expansion and growth. These principles have boded well for Elkjà ¸p’s shareholders, as well as Dixons. Bibliography Barboza, D., Barbaro, M. (2006) Wal-Mart said to be acquiring chain in China. 16 October 2006. The New York Times Bierman, H. (2006) Increasing Shareholder Value. Springer Publications BREFI group (2006) The Board of Directors – roles and responsibilities. Retrieved ion 22 November 2006 from http://www.brefigroup.co.uk/resources/board_roles.html Broxterman, W., Murad, D. (1999) Enhancing Shareholder Value. 23 September 1999. FEICA 1999 Conference, Lucerne, Switzerland Business.com (2006) Elkjà ¸p Asa. Retrieved on 22 November 2006 from http://www.business.com/directory/retail_and_consumer_services/consumer_electronics/Elkjà ¸p_asa/profile/ CNN Money (1999) Freeserve IPO: Get on line. Retrieved 25 November 2006 from http://money.cnn.com/1999/07/23/europe/freeserve/ CNN Money (2000) Wanadoo buys Freeserve. Retrieved on 25 November 2006 from http://money.cnn.com/2000/12/06/europe/wanadoo_freeserve/index.htm Contentmanager.net (2006) Intershop Successful in Scandinavia. Retrieved on 25 November 2006 from http://www.contentmanager.net/magazine/news_h13704_intershop_successful_in_scandinavia.html Dixons Group plc (2000/01) Annual Report Accounts. Retrieved on 22 November 2006 from http://www.dsgiplc.com/Uploads/{2d89b6c1-29a2-4221-a5de-d6aff784de21}/annual report 2000_2001.pdf Dixon (2003) Annual Report. Retrieved on 23 November 2006 from http://images.dixons.com/corporate_new/images/annual_reports/Annual03_04/Elkjà ¸p.htm Dixons (2004/05) Annual Report. Retrieved on 25 November 2006 from http://www.dsgiplc.com/Uploads/{2fbeed95-0410-4b7c-b306-d433c8d5424b}/Annual report 2004 05.pdf Doukas, J., Travlos, N. (1988) The Effects of Corporate Multinationlism on Shareholders’ Wealth: Evidence from International Acquisitions. Vol. 43. Journal of Finance DSG International plc (2006) Annual Report and Accounts 2005/06. Retrieved on 22 November 2006 from http://www.dsgiplc.com/Uploads/{b1ce5112-673c-45f2-a4cd-989bab7feda2}/fv ar0506.pdf DGS international plc (2006) Our Brands. Retrieved on 22 November 2006 from http://www.dsgiplc.com/Layout.aspx?CatID=9c8bcdca-948a-44e5-b7a7-60bd761d7017ID=7df99862-91cb-490d-ad89-38ac1764e880 DSG international plc (2006a) Our History. Retrieved on 22 November 2006 from http://www.dsgiplc.com/layout.aspx?ID=6568d063-24f8-4c3d-a7b7-6aa675e64775CatID=86e81cbe-a91d-4490-8726-5d37e765e6c2 Ernest Young (2006) Ernst Young Launches Company Director’s Handbook. 24 March 2004. Retrieved on 22 November 2006 from http://www.ey.com/global/content.nsf/South_Africa/Governance__Sustainability_-_Company_Directors Google (2006) DSG International plc. Retrieved on 25 November 2006 from http://google.com/finance?cid=3785532 Groves, J. (2006) Maximizing Shareholder Value. Retrieved on 24 November 2006 from http://www.captive.com/service/marsh/shareholder_value.html Higgins, R. (2000) Best Practices in Global Investor Relations: The Creation of Shareholder Value. Quorum Books Jarrell, G., Poulsen, A. (1989) The Returns to Acquiring Firms in Tender Offers: Evidence from Three Decades. Vol. 18. Financial Management Loderer, C., Martin, K. (1990) Corporate Acquisitions by Listed Firms: The Experience of a Comprehensive Sample. Vol. 19. Financial Management Markides, C., Ittner, C. (1994) Shareholder Benefits from Corporate International Diversification:: Evidence from U.S. International Acquisitions. Vol. 25, Issue 2. Journal of International Business Studies Rappaport, A. (1997) Creating Shareholder Value: A Guide for Managers and Investors. Free Press UK Business Park (1999) Dixons. Retrieved on 23 November 2006 from http://www.ukbusinesspark.co.uk/dixonsaa.htm VNU Network (2006) EB Beats Dixons to make bid for Game. Retrieved on 25 November 2006 from http://www.vnunet.com/articles/print/2005144 Yeung, B., Morck, R. (1992) Internationalization: An Event Study Test. August 1992. Journal of International Economics

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Land Ethic :: essays research papers

The land ethic is a holistic view of ecosystems. It entails an entire view of a biotic community to include all of nature, not just the individualistic components which incorporate our environment. Great efforts would be taken by supporters of the ‘land ethic’ to support an ecosystem that was threatened. The individual components that comprise the ecosystem are not of great concern to supporters of this theory; they would argue that a threat to an individual organism, even protected or endangered, should be evaluated on whether or not the protected or endangered species does endanger the integrity of the whole system. A supporter of the land ethic argument would have consequences to weigh regarding the value of the threatened individual and how it relates to the survival of individuals of the group. If the group were to suffer a threatening blow that could affect the livelihood or existence of members of the controlling group one would expect that the threatened organis m could be evaluated for possible â€Å"non-protection†. In contrast, a Respect for Nature ethic believes that any animal or living organism should be protected because that organism is deserving of its own individual worth; the fact that it is protected or endangered would be of little concern to these supporters. The simple fact that an individual is threatened is more than sufficient to justify that great efforts be taken to protect that individual entity. The Respect for Nature ethic followers would argue that every organism is worthy of protection because of an inherent worth that entitles that entity to protection from destruction.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  If society were to take either side of this argument, there would be consequences. To take the land ethic view, our current use of the land for farming and raising livestock would change and our view as the conqueror of the land would change to more towards a â€Å"biotic citizen† or a member of the land community.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Public Administration

Journal of Public Administration and Policy Research Vol. 4(2) pp. 23-31 March, 2012 Available online at http://www. academicjournals. org/JPAPR DOI: 10. 5897/JPAPR11. 049 ISSN 2141-2480  ©2012 Academic Journals Review Ethics in Public Administration D. Radhika Ph. D. Research Scholar, Post-Graduate and Research Department of Public Administration, Anna Adarsh College for Women, (affiliated to the University of Madras) Chennai-600040, Tamilnadu, India. E-mail: [email  protected] com. Accepted 23 February, 2012The modern world has seen an increase in interest in the areas related to the ethics of the sovereign good. A number of studies have focused on this subject matter and several academicians have exposed a number of ethical and philosophical dilemmas related to the concept of ethics in public administration. Despite the increasing number of studies that have focused on the importance of administrative ethics, there has been very little effort spent on identifying what exactly constitutes the crux of ethics in administration.The objective of this paper is to review the implications of the basic principles of ethics for public administration in the context of new public governance and discuss their impact on different administration imperatives which in turn act as the determinants of ethics in public administration. This review will also focus on the importance of ethics in new governance practices (privatization, decentralization, debureaucratization, devolution of budgets etc. ,) with reference to the push and pull of ethics and administration and how ethics mindsets and basic approaches to administration and governance can be changed.Key words: Ethics, public administration, ethical imperatives, ethics and public administration, ethics and morals. INTRODUCTION Since the 1970s there has been a great deal of change associated with the implementation of administrative ethics. These changes have been promoted and motivated by the concept of public administ ration in the new era. An important position is given to the concept of ethical issues in today’s civil governance. There has been a great deal of research associated with this concept which has been supported by translation of evidences and theories into practice across different continents.Frederickson and Ghere (2005) address both the managerial and individual/moral dimensions of ethical behavior as well as new challenges to administrative ethics posed by globalization. As promoted by Cooper (2001) ethics in public administration is not a transient concept but has proven to be an approach which has shown a great deal of sustainability which is fundamental to the area of public administration. Public administration has certain issues with regard to ethics implementation and finds it troublesome to come to terms with them. One reason for this is because ethics is embedded in an intellectual framework.This framework is based on stable institutional as well as role relationshi p levels, among both public employees as well as the organization. According to the views of a number of researchers (Bang and Sorensen, 1999; Keast et al. , 2004; Rhodes, 1996; Sorensen, 2002, 2006; Sorensen and Torfing, 2004; Stoker, 1998), current government perspectives believe that clarity and stability at these levels would be problematic. Despite the increasing number of studies that have focused on the importance of administrative ethics, there has been very little effort spent on identifying what is exactly the crux of ethics in administration (Cooper, 2004).This lack of directed research in the dynamics of operations with regards to ethics in public administration along with constant changes in the principles and policies associated with administrative ethics need to be examined. These developments have raised new topics for concern in this field. One example which can be cited at this juncture is the emergence of the concept of egovernance which would require the identifi cation of a whole new paradigm of ethics in public administration. This article tries to identify the ways in which administrative policies in public organizations can be 24 J.Public Adm. Policy Res. promoted and managed by adopting an effective and novel ethical approach. It would be prudent to mention the â€Å"ethics framework† here. The ethics framework (Bosseart and Demmke, 2005) is a voluntary, non-legally binding European Code of Ethics. It reflects the basic common values and standards which member states consider important for the proper functioning of public service. It comprehensively discusses the general core values, specific standards of conduct, actions to safeguard integrity and measures on handling situations where there has been possible violation of ethics.It helps to structure the discussion on public-service ethics and it serves as a toolkit or general guideline for the development of codes of conduct at a national and subnational level. Originally, the e thics framework identifies general core values that should be common to all member states. These values are the rule of law (â€Å"lawfulness†), impartiality/ objectivity, transparency (â€Å"openness†), accountability, professionalism (â€Å"expertise†), and duty of care, reliability (â€Å"confidence, trust†) and courtesy (â€Å"service principle†).If it is believed that these are the core values, then they should be fully recognised in every country. Public-service ethics is an issue that is taken seriously in every member state of the European Union. However, member states are at different stages of development and measures that are considered necessary in one country may be deemed irrelevant in others. The ethics framework has had a greater impact on those new member states that are currently fighting against corruption.In the case of old member states, the Framework has had smaller impact since the core values have traditionally been an integ ral part of their administrative culture and many of the tools proposed in the Framework were already in use. For example if one considers Portugal, an old member state where the administrative culture is traditional and core values are already a part of the administrative framework there are alterations in the form of codes of conduct which can be proposed in order to promote ethics in public administration.However the norms and regulations associated with the old administrative culture were not modified or removed. This resulted in two different viewpoints being promoted by the same government. This has resulted in a great deal of tension between traditional administrative culture and the new concepts of quality in public administration. NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND ETHICS Globally the concept of privatization has been promoted in new public administration. It is seen that this concept is related to the measures which promote establishment of efficiency and efficacy leading to ev elopment of quality deliverance of public services. In the research conducted by Savas (2000), the concept of â€Å"privatization in new public management†, is promoted. Further identified by Walsh et al. (1997) introduction of new market mechanisms which promote effective implementation of public services in organizations is identified. Walsh in his research has identified that privatization in governance in the United Kingdom has resulted in a new paradigm, which has promoted transformation of both organizational and cultural needs.The purpose of these reforms include reduction of cost relating to the actions of the governments, identification of measures to reduce the direct impact of action of public employees and bringing about a variation in the overall views of the government by the public. This type of privatization maneuver not only challenged the current realities associated with ethics in public administration, wherein administrators were considered as technical pr ofessionals, but also identified the type of functioning that does not take into account good judgment on the part of employees.Accordingly, intellectual proponents of the ethical perspective were responsible for the first noteworthy approach of public administrators’ ethical obligations and the importance of citizen participation in administrative decisions (Cooper, 2004). This has long been in place in developed countries across the world as seen with the NPM concepts promoted by Ronald Reagan in USA and Margaret Thatcher in the UK. REINVENTING GOVERNMENT As seen by Osborne and Gaebler (1992), it is observed that reinventing the government assumed importance in Bill Clinton’s administration.In his era, new concepts of public administration with regards to two different areas were promoted. The first, involved identification of factors which promoted the productivity of governance and the second involved setting a new vision and mission policy. It was proposed that th e productivity of governance can be increased by adopting more ethical measures in terms of distinguishing between the results and quantity of resources used. The use of a new mission policy will satisfy the needs of the general public. These measures may be identified to be less drastic when compared to the concept of privatization of governmental organizations.However this idea can be promoted and productivity increased only when there is a change in attitude towards current concepts of established hierarchy in governance. A move should be made toward promotion of methods to identify flexibility, centralization and concentration of public administration aspects. These aspects may be considered to be an intermediate solution to privatization. If it is not possible, delegation mechanisms can be a solution. With regard to the ethical position, the researcher advocates that privatization may not alter the fact that the responsibility of the state towards its citizens will be met.Radhi ka 25 Different processes which are to be supervised and controlled need to be realized by the government because ultimately the accountability and ethics of the action of the government to its citizens is needed. The scope and responsibilities of public administration changed due to the dynamics of new public management systems such as privatization, decentralization, debureaucratization and citizen partnership that are essentially new public management techniques and practices drawn mainly from the private sector and increasingly seen as a global phenomenon.These concepts shift the emphasis from traditional public administration to public management which accorded ethics a central position. The purpose of public service is to essentially fulfil a citizen’s basic requirements. Rocha (2000), observes that groups calling for professional management of public administration argue that they are more efficient and effective than the existing framework. They call for breaking down large institutions into manageable centres, thus allowing for independent functioning as part of the new economic institutional ideal.MORALS: THE RISE OF ETHICAL REASONING ABOUT MORALS Snell (1976) has maintained that it was Socrates, the founder of moral philosophy who enquired into the nature of ethics as his thoughts led him to the inner person rather than the external physical factors in 5 B. C. Morality’s choice of good and sound ethics was a natural means of developing a strong moral fibre. Socrates also felt that knowledge and morality were interrelated and one could not be moral if one did not know what morals were and what was good for mankind. Thus, he thought of virtue as being the centrepiece of nowledge and reasoned that virtue was knowledge. All thought and action therefore had to emanate from the knowledge of what was good or bad and then, be judged by ethical and moral standards. This would then lead to true happiness. (Vlastos, 1991), states that it was Socr ates’ idea that morality be linked to happiness because he felt ethics was about knowing what was good. Socrates’ thoughts also reached the common man through discourses and debates, and intense conversations, which constantly probed, questioned and thus, evoked reactions and insights while testing his views and theories through his now-famous dialogues.He felt constant engagement with the questions of virtue. He believed that morality would make people better as they would focus more on their own moral standards. DETERMINANTS ADMINISTRATION OF ETHICS IN PUBLIC public sector include: 1) The political construct of which public administrators are a part 2) The legal framework 3) The administrators and public employees who are responsible for the provision of public services 4) The citizens and users of public services that are a part of the civil society.First, the determinants of ethics in public administration with regard to the individual attributes of public/civil se rvants include ethical decision-making skills (Richardson and Nigro 1987), mental attitude (Bailey, 1964), virtues (Dimock, 1990; Dobel, 1990; Gregory, 1999; Hart, 1989), and professional values (Van Wart, 1998). Secondly, the organizational structure dimension is explained by clear accountability, collaborative arrangements, dissent channels, and participation procedures (Denhardt, 1988; Thomson, 1985).Third, the political organizational culture includes artefacts, beliefs and values, and assumptions (Schein, 1985). Leadership is important in the development, maintenance, and adaptation of organizational culture (Scott, 1982; Schein, 1985; Ott, 1989). Ethical behavior is encouraged when organizations have a climate where personal standards and employee education are emphasized, where supervisors stress the truth, and where employees regularly come together to discuss ethical problems (Bruce, 1995, 1994). Finally, societal expectation includes public participation, laws, and policie s.The advanced set of fundamental principles or criteria that integrate the process of dealing with ethical dilemmas in public administration are: 1) Democratic accountability of administration, 2) The rule of law and the principle of legality, 3) Professional integrity and 4) Responsiveness to civil society. This can be described as the ALIR model of imperatives of ethical reasoning in public administration. The research by Parsons (1964) presented the concept of ‘evolutionary universals in society’; wherein there are aspects associated with the identification of issues related to public administration ethics.In his Evolutionary Universals Parsons tied his functionalist theory to an evolutionary perspective and argued that, like biological organisms, societies progress through their ‘capacity for generalized adaptation’ to their environment. This is achieved mainly through processes of structural differentiation; that is, the development of specialized ins titutions to perform the social functions necessary to meet increasingly specialized needs. However, this increasing complexity then requires new modes of integration, in 1 The major determinants of administrative conduct in the ALIR- Accountability, Legality, Integrity, Responsiveness 26 J. Public Adm. Policy Res. order to co-ordinate the new and more specialized elements. This is achieved via the principle of the ‘cybernetic hierarchy’ or the increased information exchange or the growth of knowledge. Evolution is then from traditional to modern societies, and progress can be charted via the development (structural differentiation) of evolutionary universals such as bureaucratic organization, money and market complexes, stratification, and the emergence of generalized universalistic norms.Each of these enables a society to adapt more efficiently to its environment. The concepts of ALIR and Parsons’ evolutionary universals have some commonalities from the point o f view of public administration. The identification of a new type of governance which promotes evolutionary universality will be vital in democratically identifying the rule of law which is capable of carrying out its role as well as taking into consideration the tasks of the civil society. The researcher feels that this type of interdependence and connection will help in distinguishing between various concepts of ethics in public administration.This will also help extend morally and effectively the following four functional concepts: 1) Accountability of public bureaucracy which helps identifies the relationship between legitimate actions and its link to administration. 2) The rule of law and legality wherein public administration should be governed by the law. 3) Concepts of professional integrity and autonomy among public administrators which will ultimately help promote the principle of meritocracy. 4) Concepts of responsibility and immediate action of public administration to i ts citizens.Consequently, the artful application of such a set of moral commands in concrete situations and circumstances will bear witness to the particular kind of ethical reasoning that a specific administrative system or public institution is able to achieve and sustain. PRINCIPLES OF ETHICS It is important to concentrate on the two leading models(ethics of the sovereign good and ethics of the service of goods) that are involved with ethical thoughts and actions within the public sectors. Furthermore, we will also compare and contrast them with the collaborative ethics that were mentioned above.It has to be kept in mind that we are not taking any particular or specific approach but rather will be taking the modern understanding of could be called â€Å"vulgar Kantianism† or a â€Å"vulgar utilitarianism† (Harmon, 2005). Ethics of the sovereign good The ethics of the sovereign good is nothing but the set of guidelines based on which an individual acts. The ethics of the sovereign good is identified to be a set of values from which the different views on ‘what is good’ can be judged. It can be commonly seen in real world scenarios that many people have different versions of the same ethical concept.People try to twist the concept to fit their needs based on their conception of the â€Å"good†. Therefore it is important to identify the viewpoint that holds the true spirit of the ethical guidelines. Michael (2005, 2003) makes a compelling argument in â€Å"The public administration†, with regards to the ethics of the sovereign good. According to him it can be called ‘principled morality’. In his argument he talks about why one should not act on the principles set by the ethics of the sovereign good. An important reason is the issue of opposing principles.According to him, not all conflicts can be resolved by basing it on the ethics that are subscribed in the sovereign good. This is because ethics does not t ake into account a large number of variables that other principles apply to that particular scenario. The primary issue with the ethics of the sovereign good is the fact that it refers to itself as the absolute last word when it comes to ethical decisions. Another issue is that it tends to assume an attitude that is raw linguistic positivism.One reason why the ethic of the sovereign good is so appealing is that it tends to transcend beyond the individual and looks at the bigger collective when it comes to defining proper ethics. Therefore it will not solve the individual issues but will rather lead us into an unrecognized and impossible (from its perspective) aporia. Ethics of the service of goods The values that are promoted by the ethics of the service of goods are mainly efficiency and maximization of the inputs to outputs. Basically there are three aspects which are important when it comes to the service of goods.They are logic of reciprocity, its view of the collective, and its criteria for judgment. It can also be clearly seen that the ethics of the sovereign good are mainly targeted towards the market. At the very core, service of goods is based on mutual exchange. Basically it assumes that people are rational and have the freedom to choose what goods or services they want. Thus, if an individual likes a particular good/ service; he/she can enter into an agreement with a suitable trader on the terms for the purchase of the same service or good.In exchange the individual can offer monetary resources to compensate the trader for the services and goods that they have provided. This is an amicable process that is disrupted only when someone fails to deliver the goods as per the terms agreed to. This will result in the decline of the social good. However in the case when everything is going smoothly, what is good for the individual ends up being good for the collective Radhika 27 whole. There have been a lot of questions that have been directed towards the e thics of the service of goods.The questions that are raised are often related to the presumption of self-interest and about the ability of people to know their true interests. These questions are considered to be problematic for reasons both empirical and logical. According to different researchers (Bauman, 2001, 2005; Catlaw, 2009), viability is an issue since the ethics of the sovereign good tends to legitimize everything as long as it promotes trade and therefore in the long run has a tendency to wear away minimal stability . This stability is needed for an intelligible world with better ethics.It neglects the problem that one must always ask â€Å"efficient to what end†? â€Å"Or â€Å"good for whom†? Following this line of thought different imperatives need to be understood in the context of ethics in administration which are discussed subsequently. ACCOUNTABILITY IMPERATIVES The distinction between politics and administration, which forms one of the most classic doctrines of modern political science and public administration (Easton, 1953), connotes not only their division of functions and their structural separation but also the subordination of the latter to the former.This stream of thought also feels that politics is superior to administration and that the government controls the administrative machinery. Bureaucrats are loyal to their ministers, who in turn are loyal to the legislature, which is loyal to the people as they are their countrymen. Thus these ‘people’s representatives’ hold the administration accountable in the interests of the general public. Ministers are accountable to the Parliament and not civil servants and hence civil servants have to act as per the orders of their ministers whether they are in agreement or not as long as the law is not circumvented or breached.Subordination of civil servants to elected representatives who act as law-makers and policy-setters forms a sine qua non precondition of democratic politics. When the bureaucracy and administration usurps power, which does not belong to it; the bureaucracy (civil or military) enters the political arena, undermines representative democracy and subjugates politics and government to its own interests and commands. Thus, it falls upon the civil servants to work diligently under the legislature as these representatives actually reflect the will of the people. They also have to apply considerable restraint in partisan politics nd while expressing their personal views. Thus, democratic virtue is not a part of the core value of public administration and neither can the parliament usurp public service institutions for its own political ends. Modern governance celebrates the different roles and responsibilities of politics and administration as it leads to higher efficacy of both functions and that is an important part of moral and personal integrity-the ability to be able to tell the truth to the powers that be. LEGAL IMPERA TIVES Administrators have to respect the legal framework and act within its bounds thus rendering all government action legitimate.Law is a universal concept in both politics and society. (Reichstadt, Etat de Droit). Max Weber sees the action of a state within the law as the third way of legitimizing authority with the other two being, charisma and tradition. Once the administration works within the realm of the law, it automatically sets forth for itself a series of controls and regulations. Power flows from the people and thus all power must be used for the good of the people, a fundamental requirement of most democratic constitutions. Governments and administrations therefore have no choice but to work within the legal framework.Thus, the way the judiciary implements these laws which are there to ultimately serve the people forms the core of the legal determinants. Brown and Duguid (2000) state that courts ensure that the law will be followed during the discharge of public duty a nd that no injustice or partiality will do and that power will not be abused. Constant monitoring and protection of the law has to be a priority if administrative reforms are to take place. Even Aristotle commented that the law should be supreme in the eyes of the people and should operate without any interference.THE INTEGRITY IMPERATIVE Chapman (1959) states, as professional ethics entered the administrative space so did the need for studying public administration and defining its scope and determinants. The nation states of Europe among others 2 have taken steps to professionalize the government. (The ethics framework and the European code of ethics) Ministers guide the bureaucracy which discharges its public duties in conformity with the law. They are chosen on the basis of special criteria and procedures which govern their recruitment, career path, discipline, and scope etc.Professional virtue brings with it integrity and acceptance of the hierarchical dominance of the governme nt but works under the authority of the law. Argyriades (1996) observes that civil servants are the permanent officers of the transient politicians in Parliament. Their competency from experience, knowledge, depth etc. , helps them assess ground realities and advise the parliament and implement public policies in an effective manner in the interest of the public. The essential 2 The ethics framework: Available on http://forum. europa. eu. int/ 28 J. Public Adm. Policy Res. eatures of a professional public service which would include knowledge of expertise, of judgement and conduct in accordance to standards, as well as commitment to the field comprise the following: 1) Recruitment should be carried out on the basis of tests and merits conducted by separate bodies and governed by regulations that are independent of politics and political systems. It should take place impartially and solely consider merit and achievements. Merit, therefore is a huge determinant of integrity and autono my. 2) Self governance should be stressed on by administrative councils to promote corporate spirit and professionalism.Experience and length of service as well as achievements and performance must be taken into account for promotions. 3) Training and education should increase professionalism in government and administration as a whole. Professionalism in public service can be seen in people who have a very good knowledge of the job in which they are working at, their expertise and talent and their ability to adhere to the highest ethical standards. Thus a true professional is one who has an adequate mix of expertise, knowledge and experience and also those who can meet the public’s expectation of them.The general public and society have certain guidelines for various professionals who are expected to adhere to these standards. For example, corruption is frowned up on by the general public and therefore a true professional would be expected to follow such practices. Otherwise , the profession is deprived of an essential precondition of its claim to legitimacy. Corruption can be a major obstacle in the process of economic development and in modernizing a country. The greater recognition that corruption can have a serious adverse impact on development has been a cause for concern among developing countries.In a survey of 150 high level officials from 60 third world countries, the respondents ranked public sector corruption as the most severe obstacle confronting their development process (Gray and Kaufmann, 1998). Countries in the Asia and Pacific region are also very worried about this problem and they are in substantial agreement that corruption is a major constraint that is hindering their economic, political and social development, and hence view it as a problem requiring urgent attention at the highest level.An example of how corruption can affect a nations’ stability that can be cited at this point is the pandemic bureaucratic and political in stability in Nigeria which is the main cause of democratic instability in the country. Ogundiya (2010) argues that democratic stability will be difficult to attain as long as corruption remains pandemic and unchecked. According to Hegel (1967), â€Å"What the service of the state really requires is that men shall forego the selfish and capricious satisfaction of their subjective ends; by his very sacrifice, they acquire the right to find their satisfaction in, but only in, the dutiful discharge of their public functions†. It may be inferred from the aforementioned that there exists a link between the universal and particular interests. The government employee would then be expected to follow a code of ethics consolidating professional virtue and integrity. Another advantage of this is that by doing so, their self confidence and motivation will rise. This is applicable for any professional in any country. Integrity can be achieved through self control in administrative conduct based on ethical standards.THE IMPERATIVE FOR RESPONSIVENESS According to Hegel (1967), public servants worked solely for the state and not for society as it was the first, which determined the choice of citizens. The society as opposed to this was viewed by Hegel as being a total of specific and contrasting desires. This then became the sphere of the particular, of concrete persons with their own private ‘systems of needs and the efforts to satisfy them. Whereas the state served the general interest, civil society was the state of partial interests.In this somehow dichotomous idea of social construction, individuals actualize themselves while partaking in various activities in civil society and ‘in becoming something definite, that is, something specifically particularized' (Hegel, 1967). The state, however, with its system of governance and law provides the underlying conditions by which individuals and their actions may find their fullest fulfillment. For that reason , the state was for Hegel the ‘actuality of the ethical idea', that is the unity of the universal and the particular.Hegel’s ideas could be more properly comprehended if it is considered that he lived in a nation where many of the people were basically subjects with no role in the functioning of the government and hence a political life and convention such as the English have had was almost negligible. His work was an effort to spread awareness among the Germans about the political aspects of life. Gellner (1996) and Argyriades (1998) observe that without an expressive and self-sufficient civil society, no political life and even less democratic polity is likely to grow and flourish.Hence, civil society has been thought of as one of the most crucial requisites for freedom and democracy. The idea that was advocated by the beginning of the twenty-first century was that the state must neither direct civil society nor be submissive to it. Rather it should stress and pitch i n the task of building social capital to the advantage of the human race which is involved. Hence, juggling an alert state and an active civil society poses a good plan for improving the standards and the future for democratic tasks.In this respect, the ‘civic virtue' of ethical reasoning in state action entails that public institutions be responsive Radhika 29 to society and pay attention to the needs and demands of the people, facilitating access to services and creating an enabling environment for sustainable human and social development. (Bovens, 1998) states, alertness is not confined to market authorities but is majorly involved in the citizens’ role in to every extent and in every tier of the government, and it also involves giving power to people in human groups.Responsiveness also entails consultation in governance and the promotion of a kind of ‘communicative ethic’ (Habermas, 1987) in societal affairs. The transition, however cumbersome it may be , from the command type of authority over people to more communicative types of reasoning and administration of things seems to emerge as a radical paradigm shift in societal affairs. In this context, civil society not only furnishes the state with needs and demands of an individual nature, but also with valuable sources of information, feedback criticism and evaluation of performance.Therefore, notions like decentralization, de-bureaucratization, privatization and citizen participation loom large in the repertoire of reform programmes and practices of many contemporary administrative systems, and affect the interface between civil society and the state. It also influences the interaction between the state and the civil society. (Buchanan, 1985) observes that society has ceased to be just the concern of state actors and molded by bureaucracy, on the contrary it is now in the purview of the active citizen’s concern.Naturally, ‘a country's view of public administration re flects its underlying philosophy of society and the state' (Chapman, 1959). State officials are affected by the way the public at large regards them. Eventually, civil servants forming a middle-class profession, par excellence, acquire the features that society expects of them. Public administration forms a partial regime in the societal complex; it is part of the state, which is subject to a distinct ‘ethic of responsibility' – in the Weberian sensevis-a-vis the society. The ideas of alertness and accountability and answerability have some similarity.These ideas also have overlaps. In spite of the number of meanings they have, it cannot be ignored that the basic aspect concerns duty and the preparedness of civil servants to honestly rationalize and defend their moves for public good. NEW ETHICAL APPROACH Denhardt and Denhardt (2002) argue that public administrators influence, and are influenced by, all of the competing standards, values, and preferences of the complex governance system. These variables not only influence, and are influenced by, public administrators; they also represent points of accountability.They plead for a â€Å"new public service† instead of â€Å"new public management† under the slogan â€Å"serving rather than steering. † Maesschalk (2001) defines the new public service approach as a viable third alternative to the observed dichotomy between â€Å"the old public administration† and â€Å"the new public management,† paying considerable attention to the development of a new ethic for public servants. The new public service authors largely join the traditionalist group in their negative assessment of the ethical consequences of NPM reforms.They propose new mechanisms in which â€Å"the primary role of the public servant is to help citizens articulate and meet their shared interests rather than to attempt to control or steer society. † It is necessary to have a management which makes available the standardization of professional ethical values, and an Aristotelian procedure of absorbing constant adjustments. This achievement resides in true ethics-based politics, which is standardized and universal. It is a must to move from forced bureaucratic demands to more agreement-based behaviour for public good.Thus the current reality needs creative methods and clubbed techniques. Hence we recommend that a public governance moral structuring could include the following aspects: 1) Instruments for answerability 2) Supervising systems through local and outside question forms 3) Forging of helpful measures to motivate moralistic attitudes award ethical acts 4) Application of audit techniques at an Intergovernmental level 5) Official socialization (for example, structuring, knowledge and guidance) 6) Establishing of whistle-blowing mechanisms cautiously 7) A greater plea for an active citizenry. ) Outlining managerial tasks 9) Effective communication. Management of ethics Th e concept of ethics is naturally reliant on genuine political desire. In this manner there is sufficient scope to establish a holistic moral code in an inclusive, organised fashion. Stand-alone steps are of no use. By evolving certain mechanisms for moral functioning, one can provide solutions for conflict of ethics, difficulties, and other scenarios.It is also helpful to encourage the growth of instruments and techniques which can predict difficulties related to ethics and beneficial to propose solutions in a more agreeable manner. Unsurprisingly, the basic principle and aim of worthy administrations are, according to Aristotle, to habituate citizens and civil workers to the inculcation of virtue. This is validated by the events in states, for law makers who mould citizens to act properly by inculcating good habits in them. It is the desire of every law maker and as for 0 J. Public Adm. Policy Res. those who cannot succeed; this is what distinguishes an effective polity from a bad one. Aristotle is of the view that the main role of the governor is to facilitate moral literacy for citizens. To be able to do so, he or she will need a lot of awareness, knowledge of virtue, and that kind of awareness can only come through a perpetual quest and enquiry about things and acts. Morality is basically about questioning. This is the main advantage of human life else it is an unworthy life.Life which has not been exposed to tests is unacceptable to humans said Socrates, in his exceptional Apology (38 A) for a moralistic stand in life. Dealing with administration ethical dilemmas in public Hart (1961) states that at the time of facing basic queries about what to do and which manner to behave in complicated scenarios and the degree to which opposed values or choice factors could be used in the scenario, one ventures in the region of ethical confusions or of â€Å"hard choices†. A dilemma is a concept which is broader and more exacting than a problem no matter how to ugh or complicated it is.The reason is that dilemmas, unlike problems, cannot be solved in the terms in which they are initially presented to the decision-maker. Being entangled in a dilemma, the choice-maker is not just confronted with contradictory and unwanted substitutes, worse, the impossibility of their being matched also means that they are separate in the sense that one can only be fulfilled if the other is not taken care of. Hence a scenario of a dilemma could result a no-win game in which the decision of one worthy substitute is always adhered to by the negation of the other.Addressing the dilemma in such a fashion would then be an opposition in terms and an aberration as the answer which is arrived at would appear to be no good and signify a complete break-up of the entangled factors of the matters to be solved. A difficulty could however be managed properly if the conditions of reference changed and the entire scenario was restructured so that focus be given to all optio ns which are organised and connected among themselves in a more orderly and sensible way. Obviously, dilemmas are many in complicated establishments, which cannot solve them properly.As an outcome, state officials and civil servants witnessing sharp dilemmas cannot but help being confused and embarrassed unwillingly. In such scenario, public governance rather than operating in the manner in which it is supposed to, lapses into a condition of chaos and uncertainty. It is in this case that moral ambiguity and lack of lucidity about larger values to direct choices and tasks in hard events may cause unbridled scepticism and a cynical attitude. Naturally, dilemmas abound in complex organizations, which fail to tackle them effectively.As a result, state officials and civil servants exposed to acute dilemmas can hardly help succumbing to a state of confusion and embarrassment in which they are often quite unwillingly thrust. In circumstances like these public administration instead of func tioning as a well ordered state of legitimate purposes degenerates into a state of confusion and indeterminacy. It is then that the case of ethical vagueness and lack of clarity about overall values to guide action and choices in ‘hard cases' comes about in administration.But if everything stands and anything goes, then nothing can be taken seriously, neither ethics and values nor rights and duties of public servants and citizens alike. The growing group of basic tenets or aspects that unite and restructure the procedure of handling ethical dilemmas in public governance are: (1) democratic answerability of governance, (2) the application of law and the notion of legality, (3) official honesty, and (4) alertness to civil society needs. CONCLUSION Even prior to the close of the twentieth century, it was apparent that states, governments, and public entities were venturing into an era of change.This was basically a period of change and not a model-based shift from dictatorial, ce ntrally-powerful states to increasingly free and consultative kinds of social communication between the people and the administrators. A different set of equations between politics, economy, culture, and civil society has been the trigger for new research on more inputs and restructuring of the responsibilities of the state and those of the public services with regard to the society and the economy. The planning for moral improvement in the public sector throws up uge questions impacting the nature of democracy, law, motivation and ethics in the public domain, and the state’s communication with civil society. There is not much uncertainty that clashing demands can make governance appear inconsistent. As a matter of fact, every one of the ALIR requirements for moralistic rationalizing if taken to its extreme would be a big hurdle rather than an asset. Some disagreements between constituents of an entity which upset the state of larger conditions can only be set right if justic e at par is given to every one of them; or rather if it dispenses what is apt to all.Not surprisingly, for Aristotle justice is the balance of passions and actions, and moral virtues reside in middle states (Lasswell, 1971). The basic aim would therefore be not the triumph of one principle or ethical imperative over the other, but rather the reduction of incongruence among them and the provision of conditions for their harmonious coexistence, mutual support and complementary fulfillment. Turning mutually exclusive dilemmas into solvable problems would then require a holistic and reflexive approach to Radhika 31 ethical reasoning.Thus modernity and change in public administration is not just applicable towards the civil society but also the civil service and public administration in a number of different ways both locally and internationally. Therefore when it comes to public administration, ethics must provide a fair degree of flexibility when it comes to framing a rational decision . It can be seen that public administrators are best placed to answer someone’s need. Thus, there is a pressing need to place morality and ethics first in the public administration of today. 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Friday, January 3, 2020

Marketing Analysis Marketing Mix - 2079 Words

3.0 Marketing Strategy 3.1 Marketing Mix The portion of Strabucks marketing is reflecting the social aspects of their customers, while the other portion is focused on rebranding of their locations. Starbuck s marketing mix(4P s) indicates the importance of this marketing tool as a way to ensure that the firm promotes the right product at the right place and with right pricing. 3.1.1 Product/Service The customers demand Starbucks to be innovative. Starbucks is focusing on the food side of the business. It would be very beneficial for the Starbucks to focus on their in-store items or baked goods. The test locations have already started to follow on this trend, and have provided positive feedback and results. Starbucks is continuing†¦show more content†¦3.1.2 Price Starbucks follows a premium pricing strategy. This pricing strategy takes advantage of the behavioral pattern of people to purchase more expensive products on the basis of the perceived correlation between high price and high value. The company’s coffee products are more expensive than most competing products, such as McDonald’s Premium Roast. Through this pricing strategy, the company maintains its high-end specialty image (Greenspan, 2015). Starbucks is not only a high-priced coffee shop but it offers a combination of quality, authority, and relative value. Starbucks sets its prices on the basis of a simple idea: high value at moderate cost. When people feel that they are getting a good deal for their money, they are more likely to pay a higher cost. Quality is key. Starbucks has to maintain strict quality controls in its coffee sourcing as well as in its customer service and related products to justify its costs (O Farrell, n.d.). Starbucks pricing strategy also depends on how it positions itself as an authority on coffee, which is allowing the company to charge premium prices. Thus, when Starbucks introduces new products at higher prices, consumers are willing to pay extra without even having tried the products because they associate the Starbucks name with high quality (O Farrell, n.d.). Starbucks alsoShow MoreRelatedMarketing Mix and Pestle Analysis of Mcdonalds in India3095 Words   |  13 Pagesafter the western operations in India.    The taste of the Chicken burger that one from Bangalore will be similar to that in Delhi if the point of purchase is Mc Donald. Mc Donald has become an integral part of today’s Indian metros.    PESTLE ANALYSIS    Pestle analysis is the done to analyze the macro environmental factors of a company or Industry.      Political Factors    The operation of any international company would be influenced by the local regional policy and rules. 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